Rakesh Kumar1, N. Uttam Singh2, Pankaj Kumar Sinha3, Pampi Paul2, B U Choudhury2 and S. Hazarika2
1ICAR-Research Complex of eastern Region, Patna (Bihar) – 800014
2ICAR-Research Complex for North eastern Hill region, Umiam, (Meghalaya)- 793103
3ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute-Jharkhand, Gauria Karma, Hazaribag (Jharkhand)-825405
Pig rearing is an integral part of rural community in Meghalaya. Pigs are one of the best meat animals for North eastern states like Meghalaya due to their high adaptability to a wide range of environments, resistance to diseases, and high reproductive efficiency. It is this pig that will help to meet the protein requirements of the state. The government works hard to provide quality pigs to all tribal farmers, as well as infrastructural support in the form of input supplies, services, disease control, and marketing. However, due to the high cost of concentrate feed, absence of pharmaceutical laboratories and industries throughout the entire north-eastern region, limited supply of medicines and vaccines, lack of quality pig breeds, inadequate training on scientific farming of pigs, difficulty in accessing veterinarians, procurement of inputs from neighboring state of Assam could explain the high cost and transportation charges, which created a gap between demand and supply of pork in the state. This kind of problem and constraint were often encountered by tribal farmers in their day to day farming activities, which hindered overall piggery development in the state of Meghalaya as well as the North-East region in general. It is interesting to note that pig farming is continuously increasing in the state because farmers are generous with their pigs and have always endeavored to inculcate different scientific training and demonstration activities from ICAR.
Successful pig Farmer:
Mr. Sosi Biswas (50 years old) was an unemployed but a progressive farmer residing in the Kalibari village, which is located 120 km from ICAR-RC for North-Eastern Hills (NEH) Region, Umroi Road, Umiam in the valley of Cherrapunjee Hills in East Khasi Hill District under the Shella-Bholaganj Block. He mainly grows crops like vegetables, paddy, ginger, turmeric etc. Pig pen constructed with concrete walls and floor with tin roofed. Twenty percent (20%) of pig feed is purchased from locally available market. In order to reduce feed expenses, he offers homemade feed along with pig feed concentrate. He usually makes pig feed at home with locally available vegetables, colocasia leaves, bananas pseudostems, wheat bran, rice bran, and other kitchen debris, etc. In order to reduce feed expenses, he offers homemade feed along with pig feed concentrate. He is dependent mainly on agriculture as a source of income, along with rearing of only local pig without a male for fattening purpose. Local indigenous pigs have a much smaller litter size and slower growth rate compared to improved breeds. The piglet of improved breeds are also not easily available in the adjoining area of the village. Hence, to increase the production potential of indigenous pigs, a total of 13 (9 female & 4 male) number of improved breeds of piglets (Hampshire x Niang Megha) introduced by ICAR-RC on NEH Region, Umiam under SCSP project during 2019-2021. The pigs were provided to them for breeding and fattening purposes as well as his pig pen was renovated with cemented and concrete wall. After rearing the pigs during that period all of his sows were conceived by natural insemination. The scientific personals were regularly visiting for monitoring the growth performance of the pigs and time to time provided mineral mixtures, dewormer, pig grower and finisher rations etc. In addition, his pig farm maintains high standards of cleanliness and sanitation in order to protect the animals from contracting any infections. When compared to the local indigenous pigs, the improved pig variety gained higher body weight, feed conversion efficiency, and litter size at birth and after weaning. Economics of expected income generated from pig farmer presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Economics of profit and cost of pig farmer
Piglets provided under SCSP Project Total no. of piglets born Total no. of piglets and adult pig sold Rate per piglet and adult pig (Rs.) Total income (Rs.) Production cost (Rs.) Net income (Rs.) B:C ratio 13 20 Piglets: 14 Adult pigs:06 Piglets: 3000-4000 Adult pig: 10,000.00-30,000.00 2,11,400.00/- 107,862.00/- 1,03,538.00/- 1.95 Net income = 1,03,538.00/- (One lac three thousand five hundred thirty eight rupees only)