B.S. Khadda, Munish Sharma, and Shashi PalKrishi Vigyan Kendra S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali)
Global poultry population in 2019 was reported to be 27.9 billion which accounts for 35% of the global livestock production. However global poultry meat production in this year was 133.6 million metric tons and the global egg production was 160.48 million tonnes respectively. This huge shortage of livestock feed ingredients is reported because of the rapid increase in human population and feed competition of people and livestock. It needs to mention here that total feed required to poultry in 2015 was 439 million metric tons which accounts 45% of the total world feed market. In poultry production, the availability and cost of feed ingredients stand at the forefront which accounts 70-75 % of the total production cost. The global price of feed ingredients such as maize, wheat, fish meal and soybean meal has increased by 160%, 118%, 186% and 108%, respectively in the last decade. It is natural behavior of the Chickens that they love to forage. If we provide them safe access to our backyard then our flock will quickly seek out grass as well as common weeds of the area. Besides this chickens also feed on fruits and vegetables waste. Chickens love to feed on fresh vegetables from garden like cabbage, broccoli, beets, cauliflower, tomato, spinach, cucumber, potato etc. However some vegetables like onions and garlic might give the eggs an off taste. Some vegetables are reported to contain toxins also. Fresh potato peel, especially tinged green, contains a toxin called solanine. Rhubarb and citrus are also not recommended for poultry feed. Undercooked or dried beans contain an avian toxin called hemaglutin which is not suitable for poultry. Following is details of vegetable and fruits whose waste can be utilized as alternative source of poultry feed.
Carrot (Daucuscarota): Carrots feed are usually cull (grade-out) or surplus carrots obtained during glut season of production. Other carrot products that occasionally are fed to livestock include the carrot tops and carrot pomace after extraction of juice. Fresh carrot contains 10 % CP on DM basis and is a rich source of vitamin C. Residue of carrot juice also contains 7-8 % CP on DM basis. Carrot tops fed at 15% to laying hens improved the beta-carotene contents and also enhance colour of egg yolk.
Tomato (LycopersiconesculentumMill.) waste: Pomace is the mixture of tomato peels, crushed seeds and small amounts of pulp that remains after the processing of the tomato for juice, paste and ketchup. Tomato paste being the primary tomato product produced worldwide, tomato pomace is the main tomato by-product available for animal feed. Dried tomato pomace can be used in broiler ration which includes upto 5-8 % of diet of grower and upto 10-12 % of diet of finishers. This level of dried pomace improves the performance of broiler. Tomato pomace improves the egg yolk colour due to pigmentation of lycopene. Higher level of inclusion of tomato pomace in poultry diet, it reduces the performance of layer and broiler.
Potato (Solanumtuberosum L.): During the peak production season, it becomes a problem for the farmers to dispose of the surplus and the cull potatoes. The only option for the farmers is to feed them to the livestock. To get the most value from the starch present in potatoes, these should be boiled or steamed. Potato sprouts contain an alkaloid, solanine and it is advisable to remove the sprouts before the potatoes are fed to pigs or poultry. Fungal infested potatoes should never be used as feed. Cooked potato can be used upto 40% poultry feed without any adverse effects on the poultry performance.
Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.)] waste: Tubers used for animal feed are cleaned, shredded or sliced, treated with sulphur dioxide and dried rapidly, in the sun or in hot air drier at 80°C or higher. The dried product is fed whole or ground to poultry. Sweet potato tubers are mainly an energy source due to their high carbohydrate content, which accounts for 80-90% of the dry weight. These carbohydrates consist of starch, sugars and small amounts of pectins, hemicelluloses and cellulose.
Cabbage waste: Cabbage waste can be offered as a feed to livestock in 3 forms as fresh, meal, and silage form. It is a good source of protein and can be used for feeding of poultry. It can improves the egg production in layers by proving as fresh green form.
A fruit waste is obtained from culled or damaged fruits and after juice extraction.
Apple Pomace (Malusdomestica): Out of the total world production, 30 – 40% of apples are damaged and therefore not marketed, and 20−40% is processed for juice extraction. The residue left after extraction of the juice, called apple pomace, could be used as a livestock feed. The dried ground damaged apple can replace 20 % maize in broiler ration without any adverse effect and decreasing the feed cost.
Banana (Musa acuminata) Leaves and Peels: About 30−40 % of the total banana production is rejected for failing to meet quality standards and is potentially available for feeding to livestock. Banana wastes include small-sized, damaged bananas, banana peels, leaves, young stalks and pseudo stems, which can be fed to livestock. Maximum inclusion rate of 7.5 to 10 % dried banana peels have been suggested for broiler diets.
Citrus pulp: About 30% of the production of citrus fruits (and 40% of orange production) is processed principally to make juice. The residue left after extraction of the juice is called citrus pulp (50−70% of the fruit by weight). It contains 60 – 65% peel, 30−35% internal tissues and up to 10% seeds. Citrus pulp is usually made from oranges (60%), grapefruits and lemons. It should be sun dried and pelleted to increase density or should be ensiled while drying, lime is added to neutralize the free acids, bind the fruit pectins and release water.
Mango (Mangiferaindica L.) Seed Kernels: Mango seed kernels (mango kernels) is the kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the whole seed. Mango seed kernels (MSK) contained carbohydrate (69.2 −80%), protein (7.5 – 13%), fibre (2.0 – 4.6%), ash (2.2 –2.6%), calcium (0.21%) and phosphorus (0.22%), which is comparable to that of maize, depending on the variety. Mango kernel based feed formulation for broiler ration the care should be taken by proportionate of the energy and protein requirement of broiler.
It is concluded that supplementation of vegetable and fruit waste in poultry diet at optimum level reduces the cost of production of layers and broilers. It also improves the production of poultry thereby enhances the profitability of poultry farmers.